Despite routine screening for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) by live donors, a kidney transplant recipient became infected, according the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. An MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report) report, part of the CDC, highlights the need to re-examine national policy on HIV tests and their timing when screening living organ donors.

The report authors say donors should be screened for HIV as near as possible to the moment of organ recovery and transplantation. They add that serology and NAT (nucleic acid testing) should be used.

Doctors should also make sure their patients are aware of a potential disease transmission risk, as well as asking donors to avoid behaviors that would raise their risk of becoming infected with HIV.

In 2009, a patient with hemodialysis-dependent kidney failure was given a new kidney from a living donor at a New York City hospital - known in the report as "Hospital A". There was no trace of any STIs (sexually transmitted infections) in the individual's medical history, neither was there any history of high-risk activity, such as injection drug use or sexual encounters with injection drug users.

The patient had received blood transfusions in 2006, but none before that date. 12 days before the transplantation procedure started, the recipient tested negative for HIV.

After the operation the patient went through multiple hospitalizations, fevers, episodes of renal insufficiency, and evaluation of possible transplanted organ rejection.

The recipient did not take part in any behaviors which might have increased his/her risk of becoming infected with HIV.

The patient was hospitalized twelve months after the kidney transplant with refractory oral and esophageal candidiasis. An EIA screening for HIV tested positive, and confirmed with a positive Western blot. Initial CDY cell count was under 100 cells/µL. In a communiqué, the CDC added "The recipient's initial CD4 cell count was

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